Sunday, June 30, 2024

Recent articles: misinformation and misdirection in health information

Photo by Sheila Webber of a takeaway coffee on the sandy beach in June 2024

Traberg, C.S. et al. (2024). The persuasive effects of social cues and source effects on misinformation susceptibility. Scientific Reports, 14(1). "The study examines the mechanisms through which social context impacts misinformation susceptibility. The authors found that social cues only impact individual judgements when they influence perceptions of wider social consensus. Essentially, news consumers are less critical of information from sources they believe are credible" 

Ashraf, A., Mackey, T. & Fittler, A. (2024) Search Engines and Generative Artificial Intelligence Integration: Public Health Risks and Recommendations to Safeguard Consumers Online. JMIR Public Health & Surveillance, 10, article e53086. "With the online pharmacy market growing, search engine providers have started integrating generative artificial intelligence (AI) into search engine interfaces, which could revolutionize search by delivering more personalized results through a user-friendly experience. As such this study looks to identify, determine the prevalence of, and characterize illegal online pharmacy recommendations within the AI-generated search results and recommendations." "19.04% (24/126) of Bing Chat’s and 13.23% (18/136) of Google SGE’s recommendations directed users to illegal vendors, including for controlled substances."
Photo by Sheila Webber: takeaway coffee on the beach, June 2024

Saturday, June 29, 2024

New articles (Spanish language): assessment instruments; use of digital libraries

Photo by Sheila Webber of a blue summer sky and some greenery in Bournemouth in June 2024

Hernández-Marín, J-L., Castro-Montoya, M.D. & Figueroa-Rodríguez, S. (2024) Alfabetización Mediática, Informacional y Digital: análisis de instrumentos de evaluación [Media, Information and Digital Literacy: analysis of assessment instruments) Investigación Bibliotecológica, 38(99) 

Alvarez-Flores, E.P., Magadaleno Moreno, M. & Núñez-Gómez, P. (2024). Competencia y comportamiento informacionales de estudiantes para el uso de las bibliotecas digitales universitarias [Information competence and behaviour of students users of university digital libraries]. Investigación Bibliotecológica, 38(99)
Photo by Sheila Webber: summer sky, Bournemouth, June 2024

Friday, June 28, 2024

New articles: LGBTQ+ students; IL taxonomy; First years; Peer observation of teaching

Photo by Sheila Webber of a cluster of white roses in June 2024

Here is the 2nd installment of articles from the latest issue of the open-access Journal of Information Literacy (vol 18 number 1) which marks 50 years since Zurkowski coined the phrase "information literates" (yesterday I listed special-issue contents):
- The self-tracking information literacy practices of LGBTQ+ students: Empowerment through self-knowledge by Pamela McKinney, Corin Peacock, Andrew Cox
- Fostering self-reflection on library instruction: Testing a peer observation instrument focused on questioning strategies by Eric Silberberg
- Building a bridge between skills and thresholds Using Bloom’s to develop an information literacy taxonomy by Amanda Folk, Katie Blocksidge, Jane Hammons, Hanna Primeau
- Moving beyond anxiety: The emotional research experiences of first-year students by Katie Blocksidge, Hanna Primeau
Go to
Photo by Sheila Webber: white roses, June 2024

Thursday, June 27, 2024

Recent articles: Journal of Information Literacy

Photo by Sheila Webber of a tree stump and pinecone on sandy ground taken in Bournemouth in June 2024
There is a special issue of the open-access Journal of Information Literacy (vol 18 number 1) marking 50 years since Zurkowski coined the phrase "information literates". I will present the contents in two parts (as it has the special-issue contents, plus usual content) starting with the Anniversary content:
- before information literacy field notes on the end of IL by nicholae cline, Jorge R. López-McKnight
- A creative future for information and digital literacy by Vicky Grant
- Chasing information literacy into the wild Questions for the Anthropocene epoch by Annemaree Lloyd
- “Do as I say, not as I do…” A present (and future) concern about the pedagogy of hypocrisy and information literacy by Silvia Vong
- Rethinking the teleological essence of information literacy Academic abstraction or real-life action literacy? by Dijana Šobota
- Information literacy after the AI revolution by Noora Hirvonen
- Training school students in information evaluation Reviewing the past, establishing the present and considering the future by Andrew Shenton
- Critical information literacy The challenge, the criticism, and the need for reflection and research by Jess Haigh
- Information literacy now Examining where we are to understand where we are going by Laura Saunders - Investigating information literacy Fool’s errand or new message? by Geoff Walton
- Flourishing in an ocean of information A futures vision for information literacy by Hilary Hughes
- Archives as the prologues of information literacy by Andrew Whitworth
- Beginnings of information literacy in Latin America A recognition of the pioneers by Alejandro Uribe-Tirado, Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo
- Navigating constant change Exploring information literacies in the context of social media health information by Anna-Maija Multas
- Navigating tomorrow's classroom The future of information literacy and inquiry-based learning in the age of AI by Elizabeth Hutchinson
- The negative spaces of information literacy An alternative research agenda by Alison Hicks
- Cruel optimism, or, this time will be different! by Maura Seale, Karen Nicholson
Go to
Photo by Sheila Webber: stump and cone, Bournemouth, June 2024

Wednesday, June 26, 2024

Information Literacy for societal resilience

An exhibition will be touring libraries in Europe from November 2024: Information Literacy for societal resilience. "A new creative intervention produced by Tactical Tech and DensityDesign Lab at Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), will address how AI is impacting the ways that media and information is produced, distributed and perceived. The exhibition... will present visitors with engaging resources that will make these issues tangible and visual. It will also provide practical tips for what to do when we are confronted with these issues in our online lives."
More information at

Tuesday, June 25, 2024

New articles: Health information; Information Behaviour; Music Selection; Fake news; Listening practices

Photo by Sheila Webber: Bandstand in Sheffield, original home of Information Research. A family sit on the grass in the partk on a sunny day with the bandstand in the middle distance

The latest issue has been published (Vol. 29 No. 2, 2024) of open access journal Information Research. This is the final issue with Professor Emeritus Tom Wilson as Editor in Chief. He founded the journal in 1995, and it a tribute to his hard work and inspiration that it remains a high quality publication with no charges for either author or reader. 

He notes in his editorial
"I thought when I started the journal that the new technologies would bring about major changes in the scholarly publishing arena: it was now possible for a single academic, like myself, to create a new journal independently of the commercial publishers who dominated the field, much to the economic costs of academic institutions. Sadly, that potential future has not been realised and the commercial publishers are as much in control as ever, and there are even fewer, as a result of mergers and acquisitions.
"There are obvious reasons for this: on one hand academics have increased teaching loads and pressure to research and publish, and the institutions are (at least in the UK) "marketised" and in competition, with a reduction in the possibilities of cooperation. On the other hand, governments are more interested in preserving their publishing industries than in genuine freedom of information. They would rather see publishing companies making massive profits from their so-called "open access" policies than support the development of genuinely open access in universities. How "open" can publishing be if authors and/or their institutions are required to pay?" 

There are two parts to this issue: regular contents and also the proceedings of the 15th ISIC conference. I will cover the latter in a future post. The regular peer-reviewed papers include:
- Reasons to fight: preliminary results on motivations to combat fake news by Wenting Yu
- ‘Alexa, play metal’: exploring music selection and personal information management via voice assistants by Jochen Steffens, Jesse David Dinneen, Sascha Donner, Tom Potthoff
- Cognitive authorities of COVID-19 information: educational differences and outcomes of trust in health experts and social media influencers in Finland Sanna Malinen, Aki Koivula
- Developing expertise and managing inaccessibility: a study of reading by listening practices among students with blindness or vision impairment by Anna Lundh
- Health information-seeking on Reddit, by people who use opioids by Margaret Sullivan, Jonah Hancock, George Shaw, Chaoqun Ni
- Approaching information-seeking habits and their contextual features by Reijo Savolainen
Go to
Photo by Sheila Webber: Bandstand (June 2024) in Sheffield, original home of Information Research (that is: the university, not the bandstand)

Monday, June 24, 2024

The NOLA Information Literacy Collective Forum 2024


The NOLA Information Literacy Collective Forum takes place 29 July - 2 August 2024. It is being held online 10:00 – 11:30 US Central time (so that's 16.00-17.30 UK time) each day. The Forum "fosters the development of information literacy instructors, reference librarians, and library professionals in all kinds of libraries (academic, public, school, archival, and special) throughout the Greater New Orleans [USA] area".
There are mostly 2 presentations per day, covering an interesting range of sectors and topics. It starts on the 29th with Post-Covid Paradigms: Perspectives on the Field from Current MLIS Students and Recent Graduates and Communication Ethics Literacy: Why Everyone Should Learn Communication Ethics. For people actually in teh New Orleans area there is also an in-person event on one of the evenings.
For more details go to

Sunday, June 23, 2024

Recording: Prompt engineering in libraries

Photo by Sheila Webber of a cluster of white climbing roses in May 2024.

There was a webinar on Prompt engineering in libraries: some early observations on12 June 2024, in which Liam Bullingham, Oona Ylinen, and Beth Burnet from the University of Essex, UK, shared some  reflections on engineering prompts for generative AI in libraries. The recording is here
Photo by Sheila Webber: white climbing roses, May 2024.

Friday, June 21, 2024

Call for articles: generative AI and disinformation

There is a call from the International Journal of Communication on "the intersection of Generative AI and disinformation. As AI technologies advance, so do the capabilities of those seeking to misuse them for synthesising and spreading disinformation. ... Contributions to this Special Section may cover a diverse array of disciplinary perspectives, including but not limited to communication science, computational social science, computer science, psychology, sociology and political science. Authors are encouraged to adopt interdisciplinary approaches that bridge the gap between technical understanding and societal impact. Submissions may range from empirical studies and theoretical frameworks to case analyses and policy recommendations, providing a comprehensive examination of the challenges and opportunities arising from the convergence of generative AI and disinformation. Special focus will be on questions relating to elections, electoral integrity, democracy, and journalism. We would welcome in particular research with a cross-platform approach, cases from the Global South as well as investigations with a multi-modal focus."
Deadline for submissions of full articles is 31 December 2024.
More information at

Wednesday, June 19, 2024

Last call for LILAC Stories!

LILAC conference logo

To celebrate 20 years of the LILAC (UK information literacy) conference there has been a research project LILAC Stories "aiming to evidence and illustrate the impact of conference participation on individuals, services and the wider profession" The deadline for contributions is 28 June 2024, so if you have been meaning to contribute, now is the time!
"The researchers would like to hear stories from delegates on what they have learned or experienced at any LILAC Conference over the 20 years it has been running. We are hoping these stories will add to our understanding of the value of the conference. We are looking to capture stories from a wide range of delegates, including delegates who have not presented or been otherwise involved in the conference planning."
More information at

Tuesday, June 18, 2024

Mapping of media and information literacy initiatives in Ibero-America - 2023

Front cover of the book showing hands and phones

Available in Spanish and English, Mapping of media and information literacy initiatives in Ibero-America - 2023 (by the Plataforma de Reguladores del Sector Audiovisual de Iberoamérica and published by UNESCO) is just published. It includes Mapping of MIL initiatives in Ibero-Americ; Perspectives on the adaptability of MIL promotion and dissemination practices in Ibero-America; and Recommendations for the Promotion and Dissemination of MIL in Ibero-America

Monday, June 17, 2024

New articles on data literacy

Photo by Sheila Webber of a Fallen tree trunk with many rings showing the tree was old in Stanley Park in Vancouver, Canada in May 2024

The journal Information and Learning Sciences (hybrid as regards open access) has two special issues focusing on Perspectives on Data Literacies Volume 125 Issue 3/4 (2024) includes
- Promoting students’ informal inferential reasoning through arts-integrated data literacy education by Camillia Matuk et al.
- Exploring alternative discourses about datafication in a speculative youth participatory action research curriculum by Ezequiel Aleman
- Using network visualizations to engage elementary students in locally relevant data literacy by Mengxi Zhou et al
- Community college students’ self-assessment of data literacy: exploring differences amongst demographic, academic, and career characteristics by Sarah Amber Evans et al.
- Teen-adult interactions during the co-design of data literacy activities for the public library: insights from a natural language processing analysis of linguistic patterns by Leanne Bowler et al.
- Critical datafication literacy: a framework for educating about datafication by Ina Sander
Go to 

Volume 125 Issue 5/6 (2024) includes
- A critical (theory) data literacy: tales from the field by Annette Markham and Riccardo Pronzato
- Teaching data storytelling as data literacy by Kate McDowell and Matthew J. Turk
- Orienting privacy literacy toward social change by Priya C. Kumar
- In my opinion, the TOS… Situating personal data literacy interventions by Juliana Elisa Raffaghelli et al
- Data literacy education through university-industry collaboration by Eylem Taş
- Data literacy in the new EU DigComp 2.2 framework how DigComp defines competences on artificial intelligence, internet of things and data by Leo Van Audenhove et al.
Go to

Photo by Sheila Webber of a felled tree trunk in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024: big number of rings to count!

Sunday, June 16, 2024

#FanLIS recordings

Created on Midjourney AI the image shows the face of a woman and some electric lines and shadows

Not specifically information literacy, but if you are interested in the intersection between library and information science and fandom you will likely be interested in the recordings from the FanLIS one day conference held last month (with the theme Fandom, AI & the Immersive), masterminded by Ludi Price and Lyn Robinson
Image created using Midjourney AI and the prompt Fandom, AI & the Immersive - I was feeling lazy

Friday, June 14, 2024

Webinar: Preparing Future Librarians for Instruction and Advocacy:

Photo by Sheila Webber of looking up to trees and sky in Stanley Park, Vancouver, May 2024

On 18 June 2024 at 13.00 US Eastern time (18.00 UK time) there is a webinar Preparing Future Librarians for Instruction and Advocacy: A Panel Discussion.
"The expectation for librarians to teach, including the types of content they are expected to teach, continues to expand. The ACRL's Roles and Strengths of Teaching Librarians (2017) outlines seven different roles, such as teacher, instructional designer, and advocate. Are LIS students prepared for the roles they will be expected to fulfill? This discussion will consider the role that LIS faculty and academic librarians do and do not play in preparing new and future librarians for the challenge of teaching and advocating for information literacy. What types of support do new librarians need for their teaching roles, and how is this best provided? How should LIS programs evolve to prepare librarians in teaching and advocating for information literacy?"
The event is hosted by The Ohio State University Libraries and is a follow-up to Celebrating 50 Years of Information Literacy: A Panel Discussion.
Panelists: Laura Saunders (Professor and Associate Dean of the School of Library and Information Sciences at Simmons University, USA); Mira Scarnecchia (OER Librarian at Columbus State Community College , USA); Merinda Kaye Hensley (Associate Professor in the University of Illinois Library and an Adjunct Associate Professor in the School of Information Sciences, USA) and Eamon Tewell (Head of Research Support & Outreach at Columbia University and part-time faculty in the Department of Library & Information Science at Rutgers University, USA)
To register, go to
Photo by Sheila Webber: trees in Stanley Park, Vancouver, May 2024

Thursday, June 13, 2024

Based in the EU? Interested in disinformation? Want to visit Italy?

Image is Midjourney AI's idea of Perugia with red tiled rooves twisty streets and birds in the sky

An opportunity only for people in countries in the European Union!
"A civic hackathon is organized in Italy [Perugia] from September 25 to 27, 2024 as part of the European project Gender-ED Coalition. The project focuses on educating the general public on the issues of gender education in the context of disinformation. It focuses on media and information literacy and gender equality, with the aim of highlighting the phenomenon of sexist disinformation and violence in social media.
"The hackathon is aimed at MIL [media and information literacy] stakeholders, artists, activists, designers, content creators, teachers, sensitive to gender and disinformation issues. Those selected must come from a European country [the application form stipulates EU] and be fluent in English."
The registration form is here and this is the project website
Image is Midjourney AI's idea of Perugia

Wednesday, June 12, 2024

Pandemic Preparedness

Photo by Sheila Webber of trees in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

There is an interesting conversation around what is commonly known as the WHO Pandemic Preparedness Treaty: changes to the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR). Started in 2021 "The main goal of this treaty would be to foster an all of government and all of society approach, strengthening national, regional and global capacities and resilience to future pandemics. This includes greatly enhancing international co-operation to improve, for example, alert systems, data-sharing, research and local, regional and global production and distribution of medical and public health counter-measures such as vaccines, medicines, diagnostics and personal protective equipment."
I think this is the latest draft.(at least, it is a late draft), and the the opening peroration mentions that signatories are
"Recognizing the importance of building trust and ensuring the timely sharing of information to prevent misinformation, disinformation and stigmatization,"
It was hoped that it would have been finalised in time for a high level conference at the end of May 2024. Then it was agreed at the start of the conference that there would be a statement at the end of the conference (here) with agreement to finalise things in 2025 at the latest. Part of the problem is reaching agreement over information sharing.
My attention was drawn to it by this article, which clains that the process has been delayed by the spread of disinformation:
There is a useful summary on the UK Government website It seems like a former UK Prime Minister was an early signatory, but last month the UK Government said it wouldn't sign it but "did not explicitly state the reasons for this". The implication seems to be that it has believed some of the misinformation that was spread....
Photo by Sheila Webber: trees in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

Tuesday, June 11, 2024

UNESCO MIL podcast

Photo by Sheila Webber: chestnut tree in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

The UNESCO Media and Information Literacy podcast (videos) has 9 episodes, each of 8-9 minutes so far, covering topics such as
- Digital skills for safe navigation in digital spaces
- Media and Information Literacy to address hate speech and discrimination
- Tackling misinformation and disinformation through Media and Information Literacy competencies
Go to
Photo by Sheila Webber: chestnut tree in Stanley Park, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

Monday, June 10, 2024

Webinar: Teaching Information Literacy: Considering Current and Future Approaches and Models

Photo by Sheila Webber of Part of the Komagata Maru memorial in Vancouver Canada in May 2024 showing part of the the memorial wall with names and flowering pink rhododendrons
A webinar on 9 July 2024 at 13.00 US Eastern time (which is 18.00 UK time): Teaching Information Literacy: Considering Current and Future Approaches and Models
"Librarians have explored multiple approaches for teaching information literacy, including one-shots, embedded librarian programs, credit-bearing courses, and teach the teachers efforts. What is working with our current approaches? What needs to change? Should librarians be the ones teaching information literacy? Are credit-bearing courses the future of IL instruction? Or a faculty development approach? This discussion will explore the role that librarians play in teaching information literacy and consider the ways that this role may evolve as we move forward."
The panellists are: Heidi Julien (Professor in the Department of Information Science at the University at Buffalo (SUNY), USA); Jane Hammons (Associate Professor and Teaching & Learning Engagement Librarian at The Ohio State University Libraries, USA); Matthew Weirick Johnson (Director of Research & Instruction at the University of South Florida Libraries on the Tampa campus, USA); Bill Badke (Associate Librarian at Trinity Western University in British Columbia, Canada).
Register at
Photo by Sheila: Webber Part of the Komagata Maru memorial, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

Saturday, June 08, 2024

New articles: Top trends; AI; IL framework

Image by Sheila Webber using Midjourney AI, the prompt AI, meetings, efficiency, impressionist style it shows silhouettes of heads and people sitting at a table with blue yellow and black mostly

- Vong, S. (2024). Incompatible with the Framework: State Laws Targeting DEI, LGBTQIA2s+, and CRT. College & Research Libraries News, 85(6), 247-253. 

- Research Planning and Review Committee. (2024). 2024 Top Trends in Academic Libraries: A Review of the Trends and Issues. College & Research Libraries News, 85(6), 231-246. (These include AI & AI Literacy and Open Pedagogy & Instructional Design

- Lo, L., & Anderson, V. (2024). AI Reskilling in Libraries: When the Dean’s Assistant Gets an AI Assistant. College & Research Libraries News, 85(6), 258-262. (A useful account of using AI as an administrative tool)

Image by Sheila Webber using Midjourney AI, the prompt AI, meetings, efficiency, impressionist style --v 6.0 --ar 16:9. With my first prompt "administrative assistant, AI, meetings, impressionist style" all the images were of attractive young women at a keyboard (so obviously all assistants are women) whereas "efficiency" brought up a majority of men.

Friday, June 07, 2024

Webinar: digital reading

Photo by Sheila Webber; geese babysitting about 20 goslings by taking them for a walk in Vancouver in May 2024
On 14 June 2024 at 12.30 US Eastern time (which is 17.30 Uk time) there is a free webinar hosted by the Special Libraries Association Education Division and ACRL's EBSS Education Committee on digital reading. It is presented by Dr. Jenae Cohn (Executive Director of the Center for Teaching and Learning at University of California, Berkeley).
"Many college and university students struggle with academic reading (Smale 2020, Carillo 2019, Sweeney 2018, Schneps 2013), and this struggle can become compounded when that reading is delivered on-screen. With the rise in usage of Open Educational Resources (OERs), digital textbooks, and websites for academic content, students constantly switch between reading instructional content, academic content, and social content. Strategies to support students’ switching between genres and purposes for reading are well-documented, but less documented are strategies for aligning students’ understanding with reading genre, purpose, and media combined (Sweeney 2018, Coiro 2015). In this session we will consider how we design reading assignments in informed ways to create meaningful, deep, and sustained reading practices with attention to reading media.
"We will examine the need for attention to reading media in the context of students’ lived experiences, particularly in the wake of increased attention to and need for use of affordable instructional materials online and attentiveness to students’ use of mobile phones for accessing academic materials (Gierdowski 2019, Rockey 2023). This conversation will be guided with an exploration of a digital reading framework to align with assignment and activity design (Cohn 2021)."
Register at
Photo by Sheila Webber; geese babysitting their friends' goslings, Vancouver, Canada, May 2024

Thursday, June 06, 2024

Chatting Info Lit IL@50

logo of chatting info  lit

There is a new episode of the Chatting Info Lit podcast produced by the CILIP Information Literacy Group New Professionals group. Hosted by Beth Morgan, Josh Rodda, and Ella Wharton, it looks at some of the history of Information Literacy with guests William Badke, Moira Bent, Debbi Boden-Angell, James Elmborg, Jane Secker, and Geoff Walton. "Sharing experiences, influences, and stories across a range of contexts, they discuss the definition of Information Literacy, the formation of the CILIP ILG, the need for librarians to be taken seriously as teachers, and the challenges posed by the rise of generative AI."
You can find it on Spotify on Apple and on Soundcloud

Tuesday, June 04, 2024

Resources about teaching

Photo by Sheila Webber of spring leaves on a tree against blue sky taken in May 2024

For those of you educating in Higher Education, this weekly listing of events and resources is useful, compiled by Dr Mary Jacob (Aberystwyth University, Wales). Generative AI features as a topic at the moment.
Photo by Sheila Webber: spring leaves, May 2024

Monday, June 03, 2024

LIRT top instruction articles 2024: list and free webinar

Photo by Sheila Webber of a water feature in a park in Vancouver in May 2024 with a stone and mosaic at the bottom of teh water channel

The American Library Association's Library Instruction Round Table (LIRT) has publsihed its list of Top 20 instruction articles for 2023. You can find the list, with annotations explaining why each item was chosen at 

On 20 June 2024 at 10.00-11.00 US EAstern time (which is 15.00-16.00 UK time) they have a free online webinar with authors from three of the articles:
- Bluemle, S. (2023). A close look at the concept of authority in information literacy. Journal of New Librarianship, 8(2), Article 2.
- Littletree, S., Andrews, N., & Loyer, J. (2023). Information as a relation: Defining Indigenous information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 17(2), 4–23.
- White, A. (2023). Let 'No' be 'No': When librarians say 'no' to instruction opportunities. In the Library with the Lead Pipe.
"The authors will share more about the inspiration for their research and how their work has impacted their own practice since publication."
Register at
Photo by Sheila Webber: water feature, Vancouver, May 2024

Saturday, June 01, 2024

Recordings: UNESCO Media and Information Literacy Youth Debates

Banner advert for the series

Recordings of the UNESCO Media and Information Literacy Youth Debate Series that took place 29-31 May 2024 (theme: Youth Powering Media and Information Literacy Responses to the use of Generative AI) are available. They are each about 90 minutes long and each has international teams arguing for and against the proposation
- Debate May 29: Is equipping youth with media and Information literacy competencies the best way to help youth benefit from and reduce the risks they face when using Generative AI?
- Debate May 30: Is removing biases from Generative AI systems possible?
- Debate May 31: Should the governance of digital platforms and technology companies include implementing a ‘teenage mode’, to mitigate the negative impacts of technology on young people?